Service service discovery: CoreDNS component

On the k8s system, Service provides a stable access gateway for service class applications in Pod. Services provided by Pod can be accessed through the ClusterIP(VIP) generated by Service, but how does the application in the Pod client know a specific What about the IP and port of the service resource? For example, if there are two applications, one is an API Application and the other is a DB application, both applications are managed by Deployment, and both of them provide services by exposing ports through Service. The API needs to connect to the DB application. It only knows the name of the DB application and the name of the service corresponding to the db, but it does not know its VIP address. It can access the subsequent PD service through ClusterIP. If you know the VIP The address Is it enough?

1. apiServer

The back-end Endpoints information for the corresponding service can be retrieved directly from the apiserver, so the easiest way is to query directly from the apiserver. If there is a special application occasionally, it is OK to query the Endpoints directly after the service through the apiserver, but if each application queries the dependent services at startup, this not only increases the complexity of the application. This also leads to our application relying on Kubernetes, which is too coupled to be universal.

2. Environment variables

To solve the above problem, in previous versions, Kubernetes used the method of environment variables, which set IP and port information for all services through environment variables when each Pod starts, so that applications in Pod can read environment variables to obtain service-dependent address information. This method is relatively simple to use. But there is a big problem that the dependent services must exist before the Pod starts, or they will not be injected into the environment variable. For example: first create an Nginx service: (test-nginx.yaml)

[root@k8s-master1 service]# vim test_nginx.yaml
You have new mail in /var/spool/mail/root
[root@k8s-master1 service]# cat test_nginx.yaml
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
  name: nginx-deploy
    k8s-app: nginx-demo
  replicas: 2
      app: nginx
        app: nginx
      - name: nginx
        image: nginx:latest
        imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
        - containerPort: 80

apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
  name: nginx-service
    name: nginx-service
  - port: 5000
    targetPort: 80
    app: nginx
[root@k8s-master1 service]# kubectl apply -f test_nginx.yaml
deployment.apps/nginx-deploy created
service/nginx-service created
[root@k8s-master1 service]# kubectl get deployments
nginx-deploy   2/2     2            2           11s
[root@k8s-master1 service]# kubectl get rs
NAME                      DESIRED   CURRENT   READY   AGE
nginx-deploy-75b69bd684   2         2         2       15s
[root@k8s-master1 service]# kubectl get pods -o wide
NAME                            READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE   IP              NODE        NOMINATED NODE   READINESS GATES
nginx-deploy-75b69bd684-57ck4   1/1     Running   0          21s   k8s-node1   <none>           <none>
nginx-deploy-75b69bd684-dtntv   1/1     Running   0          21s   k8s-node1   <none>           <none>
[root@k8s-master1 service]# kubectl get svc -o wide
kubernetes      ClusterIP       <none>        443/TCP    43d   <none>
nginx-service   ClusterIP   <none>        5000/TCP   37s   app=nginx

You can see that two Pods and a Service named nginx-service were created successfully. The Service listens on port 5000 and it forwards traffic to all Pods it proxyes (here are the two Pods with the app: nginx tag)

Then create a normal Pod and observe whether the environment variables in the Pod contain the service information of the above nginx-service: (test-pod.yaml)

[root@k8s-master1 service]# vim test_pod.yaml
You have new mail in /var/spool/mail/root
[root@k8s-master1 service]# cat test_pod.yaml
apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
  name: test-pod
  - name: test-service-pod
    image: busybox:1.28
    imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
    command: ["/bin/sh", "-c", "env"]
[root@k8s-master1 service]# kubectl apply -f test_pod.yaml
pod/test-pod created

After the Pod is created, view the pod log information

[root@k8s-master1 service]# kubectl logs test-pod

You can see that a number of environment variable processes have been printed, including the nginx-service service service you just created, which has HOST,PORT,PROTO,ADDR, etc. Now if you need to access the service of nginx-service in this Pod, you can access it directly through NGINX_SERVICE_SERVICE_HOST and NGINX_SERVICE_SERVICE_PORT accessed, but if the nginx-service service is not started when the Pod starts, this information cannot be obtained in the environment variables. Of course, methods such as initContainer can be used to ensure that the nginx-service starts before the Pod starts, but after all, this method increases the complexity of Pod startup, so it is not the optimal method.

Therefore, the function of service discovery based on environment variables is relatively simple and easy to use, but there are certain limitations. For example, only information about pre-existing Service objects in the same namespace as the created pod object will be injected as environment variables, those in a different namespace, or services created after the pod resource is created Object-related environment variables are not added.

3. ClusterDNS

Due to the limitations of the discovery mechanism of environment variables above, a smarter scheme is needed to use the name of the Service directly, because the name of the Service will not change and you do not need to care about the assigned ClusterIP address, because the ClusterIP address is not fixed, so it would be good if the name of the Service was used directly and the corresponding ClusterIP address conversion could be completed automatically. The direct conversion of name and IP can be solved by DNS. Similarly, Kubernetes also provides a DNS solution to solve the above problem of service discovery.

ClusterDNS, which is used for name resolution and service discovery on the k8s system, is one of the core accessories of the cluster. Each Service object created in the cluster will automatically generate related resource records. By default, each pod resource in the cluster is automatically configured as a name resolution server and includes the domain name suffix of the namespace to which it belongs in its DNS search list.

  Since kubernetes version 1.3, its DNS for service discovery has been updated to kubeDNS, and another similar service discovery project based on newer DNS is CoreDNS incubated by CNCF, which is developed based on go language and implemented by concatenating a group of A plugin chain for DNS-enabled plugins to work. Since kubernetes 1.11, CoreDNS has replaced kubeDNS as the default DNS plugin. It is usually an add-on that is deployed immediately after the cluster installation is complete. When you initialize a cluster with kubeadm, it automatically deploys.

CoreDNS official website address:

1) Domain name format:

If the established Service supports resolution in the form of domain names, it can solve the function of service discovery. So what kind of DNS records can the Service be generated by using CoreDNS?

Common Service: generates servicename.namespace.svc.cluster. The local domain name, which resolves to the ClusterIP corresponding to the Service, can be abbreviated as servicename for calls between Pod s. Namespace, if under the same namespace, can even be accessed as a servicename
Headless Service: A headless service, which means that the clusterIP is set to None, will be parsed as the IP list of the specified Pod, and a specific Pod can also be accessed through podname.servicename.namespace.svc.cluster.local.

2) Test CoreDNS

Use a Pod to test the domain name access of the Service

[root@k8s-master1 service]# vim dig-pod.yaml
You have new mail in /var/spool/mail/root
[root@k8s-master1 service]# cat dig-pod.yaml
apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
  name: dig
  namespace: default
  - name: dig
    image:  test/dig:latest
    imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
      - sleep
      - "3600"
  restartPolicy: Always
[root@k8s-master1 service]# kubectl apply -f dig-pod.yaml
pod/dig created

In the created pod:dig client, try to request to resolve the related DNS records of nginx-service and kubernetes

[root@k8s-master1 service]# kubectl get svc
NAME            TYPE        CLUSTER-IP      EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)    AGE
kubernetes      ClusterIP       <none>        443/TCP    44d
nginx-service   ClusterIP   <none>        5000/TCP   22h

[root@k8s-master1 service]# kubectl exec -it dig -- nslookup nginx-service

Name:   nginx-service.default.svc.cluster.local

[root@k8s-master1 service]# kubectl exec -it dig -- nslookup kubernetes

Name:   kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local

  During parsing, the search order of the "nginx-service" service name is default.svc.cluster.local, svc.cluster.local, cluster.local, and ${WORK_NODE_DOMAIN}, so DNS-based service discovery is not subject to Service resources. Namespace and creation time constraints. The above parsing result is also the IP address of the nginx-service service created in the default default namespace.

After the service is created in k8s, the default FQDN of the service is <service name>.<namespace>.svc.cluster.local, then the services inside the k8s cluster can be accessed through the FQDN.

Tags: Kubernetes

Posted by el_kab0ng on Thu, 15 Sep 2022 02:40:11 +0930