To learn the linux environment, you need to install the mirror
Need to download and download the mirror with the .iso suffix
CentOS installation type selection
Desktop: The basic desktop system, including commonly used desktop software, such as document viewing tools.
Minimal Desktop: A basic desktop system with less software included.
Minimal: The basic system, without any optional packages.
Basic Server : Platform support for the installed base system, excluding the desktop.
Database Server: Basic system platform, plus MySQL and PostgreSQL databases, no desktop.
Web Server: The basic system platform, plus PHP, Web server, and MySQL and PostgreSQL database clients, no desktop.
Virtual Host: Basic system plus virtual platform.
Software Development Workstation: Contains many software packages, basic systems, virtualization platforms, desktop environments, and development tools.
The installation of Linux is basically used to build a server, so basically choose Basic Server.
The difference between the download versions of Centos
DVD ISO: Standard installation disk, generally you can download this (about 4G)
Everything ISO: Supplement the software of the full version installation disk and integrate all the software (about 8G)
Minimal ISO: The smallest installation disk, only the necessary software, and the least self-contained software (about 1G)
64-LiveDVD.iso trial version
64-bin-DVD1.iso real installation package
64-minimal.iso Minimal installation package
Install the virtual machine
First of all, you need to install virtual machine software on your own computer, I use VMware Workstation Pro
Create a new virtual machine
File > New Virtual Machine
Choose the mirror we downloaded
Define the name and select the location
CPU configuration is 1
The memory configuration is 1G
Here, choose 1CPU1G memory, which can be expanded as needed
Configure the network
Select network as NAT
Here we need to explain the three networks of virtual machines
- Bridged (Bridged Mode)
- NAT (Address Translation Mode)
- Host-Only (host mode only)
To understand these three networks, we need to open Edit > Virtual Machine Network Editor
There are three network cards here, VMnet0, VMnet1, VMnet8
Here the three network cards correspond to the three modes
Bridge mode: here is the network used by your physical machine, here is the request address through your connection to wifi or physical network card, which is in the same network segment as your PC network card, but please note that this requires wifi and switch support, if It is found that this function cannot be used to communicate friendly with the network administrator.
Host mode: This network has a feature that it cannot connect to external networks. The reason is that this network cannot be configured with a gateway, and can only communicate with hosts in host mode through Layer 2, and audit some virtual machines that are inconvenient to expose to external networks.
Nat mode: This is the mode we often use. We can see that the subnet address is 192.168.47.0, the mask is 255.255.255.0, and the gateway configuration is 192.168.47.2. In fact, there are two hidden conditions. Our host IP is 192.168.47.1, DNS server is 192.168.47.2
To select Nat mode, we only need to configure the virtual machine in the middle of the 192.168.47.0-254 network, and then configure the gateway to 192.168.47.2 to access the external network normally.
Virtual machine configuration
Choose a language
Language To avoid coding problems, choose English
Select the running version
Hard disk partition
For the sake of simplicity of configuration, no partitioning is performed here.
/boot Boot partition 200 M swap swap partition memory 1.5 times (memory less than 8 G) greater than 8 G give 8 G / How much is left in the root partition?
Data is very important
/boot Boot partition 200 M swap swap partition memory 1.5 times (memory less than 8 G) greater than 8 G give 8 G / 50-200 /data how much is left
Not sure if the data is important
/boot Boot partition 200 M swap swap partition memory 1.5 times (memory less than 8 G) greater than 8 G give 8 G / 50 -200 The rest of the space is not allocated
Configure root password
Click to restart
virtual machine initialization
In order to avoid some repetitive operations, various configurations are required. The following configuration is my habit, and you can learn from it.
Configure fixed IP
The vi editor is used here, you should not be used to it, here is a brief introduction, vim has two modes for our main operations, the default mode and the editing mode
Use i to enter edit mode from default mode
Use esc to exit the default mode from edit mode
Use in default mode
:q #quit :q! #force quit :wq #save and exit :wq!#Force save and exit
~]# vi /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-ens33 BOOTPROTO=static ONBOOT=yes IPADDR=192.168.110.191 NETMASK=255.255.255.0 GATEWAY=192.168.110.2 DNS1=192.168.110.2 ~]#systemctl restart network
Due to the configured fixed ip, the following operations are performed in the shell connection tool
Modify time zone
[root@localhost ~]# ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Asia/Shanghai /etc/localtime [root@localhost ~]# hwclock -w [root@localhost ~]# timedatectl status Local time: Fri 2022-09-09 06:28:15 CST Universal time: Thu 2022-09-08 22:28:15 UTC RTC time: Thu 2022-09-08 22:28:15 Time zone: Asia/Hong-Kong (CST, +0800) NTP enabled: yes NTP synchronized: no RTC in local TZ: no DST active: n/a
[root@localhost ~]# hostnamectl set-hostname Template-host [root@localhost ~]# bash [root@template-host ~]#
Configure domestic yum source
[root@template-host ~]# mv /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo.backup [root@template-host ~]# curl -o /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo https://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/Centos-7.repo % Total % Received % Xferd Average Speed Time Time Time Current Dload Upload Total Spent Left Speed 100 2523 100 2523 0 0 7786 0 --:--:-- --:--:-- --:--:-- 7787 yum makecache Non-Alibaba Cloud ECS user will appear Couldn't resolve host 'mirrors.cloud.aliyuncs.com' information, does not affect use. Users can also modify the relevant configuration by themselves: [root@template-host ~]# sed -i -e '/mirrors.cloud.aliyuncs.com/d' -e '/mirrors.aliyuncs.com/d' /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo
turn off firewall
[root@template-host ~]# systemctl stop firewalld.service && systemctl disable firewalld.service && iptables -F && setenforce 0 Removed symlink /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/firewalld.service. Removed symlink /etc/systemd/system/dbus-org.fedoraproject.FirewallD1.service. [root@template-host ~]# sed -i 's/SELINUX=enforcing/SELINUX=disabled/g' /etc/selinux/config
Install basic software
[root@template-host ~]#yum -y install gcc gcc-c++ wget vim lrzsz net-tools curl lsof unzip tree bash-completion
The experimental machine needed later needs to be cloned from this machine, and we do not use this machine directly, so that our experimental machine is produced.
[root@template-host ~]# shutdown now